Late period

The Nubian rulers of Dynasty 25 were driven out of the country by the Assyrians. After their retreat a native Dynasty from the Delta town of Sais took power of the whole country (Dynasty 26). The Late Period of Egyptian history is characterised by the country's relations with Greece and Persia, the competing superpowers in the Near East at the time. The Persians ruled Egypt between 525 and 404 BC, as the 27th Dynasty, and again in 343-332 BC. In between, the brief 28th, 29th and 30th Dynasties witnessed a final period of native rule, notably under the two rulers called Nectanebo (I and II) of the 30th Dynasty. The presence of numerous Greeks in the country, as soldiers or merchants, came to have a large impact on the indigenous culture. At the same time, the Egyptians looked back to their glorious past to strengthen their sense of national identity. The revival of traditional art forms that had set in during the 25th Dynasty inspired the arts and other cultural expressions, which would be continued under the Ptolemies.